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[词典考据] Territorial Army以及相关词

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发表于 2019-8-13 22:59:02 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
本帖最后由 klwo2 于 2019-8-13 23:03 编辑 - |; U- W9 [9 F

1 o2 x$ r" c. l( e! UTerritorial Army 这词,大概是《英汉大词典》带的头,国内词典纷纷管它叫「(英国)本土防卫义勇军」什么的,远东英汉则说是「地方自卫队」
: P0 a. V9 z1 z. Z! A. E2 q前者吧,怎么听怎么像那个……进行曲……后者吧,日本的那个Self-Defense Force叫「自卫队」很合理,这个……1 m8 R! g( f/ s- P2 F( L
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只有《新世纪英汉大词典》独树一帜,说是「(英国)常备预备役陆军」,并带上了一个知识窗。大概说对了。请看Wiktionary:
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Territorial Army
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Proper noun, n2 [, O# S* P; T
A reserve force of the British Army, made up of part-time soldiers.
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Oxford Dictionary of English(英语版):9 A9 ~: D8 f& }7 o

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(In the UK) a volunteer force founded in 1908 to provide a reserve of trained and disciplined military personnel for use in an emergency. Called since 2013 Army Reserve.
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2013年他们改名了!改叫Army Reserve了!这不是赤裸裸地告诉我们人家是预备役部队嘛!英汉双解版出版得早,没有这个信息。9 P5 i. Z+ y7 \) m. ^
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喂鸡百科:
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The Army Reserve is the active-duty volunteer reserve force and integrated element of the British Army. It should not be confused with the Regular Reserve whose members have formerly served full-time. The Army Reserve was previously known as the Territorial Force from 1908 to 1921, the Territorial Army (TA) from 1921 to 1967, the Territorial and Army Volunteer Reserve (TAVR) from 1967 to 1979, and again the Territorial Army (TA) from 1979 to 2014.

% @; d  w. j5 y- l4 A& c! Y妈妈呀,换了这么多次名字啊& \* U7 E6 {' s4 Q" I& P
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! W1 }$ v) D. ~; W; O  `6 S麦克米伦百科全书:
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militia      民兵
# G  h: u4 M5 D1 A+ K3 {2 w在紧急情况下由后备役军人组成加强常备军的一支军事力量。源于盎格鲁撒克逊的民军,这个组织强制所有男性自由民在当地短期服役。继威廉一世在英格兰实行封建制征兵法之后,这种普通征兵法继续存在。在都铎王朝统治下招募所谓的“民兵团”的职责落实到了各教区。1661年随着常备军的建立,民兵制度遂衰落;1757年实行改革。19世纪民兵发展成为自愿组织,并且第一次在国外服役。民兵这一组织持续至1907年本土预备役法的实施。参见“本土军”(Territorial Army)。
Territorial Army      本土军$ V$ Z2 Y- c7 j! }9 t+ h8 g
英国志愿军部队。1907年建成本土部队。1922年更名。1967—1979年改称为本土军志愿预备队。由84000人组成,他们训练有素,装备精良,为正规军的加强部队。

/ |3 j/ ^' M- O% p! z翻成「本土军」咱姑且不管它,根据百科全书的描述,Territorial Army就是英国的民兵/预备役
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* n# G1 ^8 ^2 |# _/ p. [# j( ]2 n辞海「民兵」:, R  V5 A7 |" S

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不脱离生产的群众武装组织。亦指这种组织中的成员。通常是国家或政治集团武装力量的组成部分,常备军的助手和后备力量。有的则同预备役相结合,既是武装力量的组成部分,又是预备役的一种组织形式……

3 Q( n$ a4 `( w5 w3 g1 D话说这个「Territorial Army」,还有前身,喂鸡百科「Auxiliaries」:
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Prior to the creation of the Territorial Force in 1908, the term "Auxiliary Forces" was used by the British Army to collectively cover Yeomanry, Militia and Volunteers. That is to say the various part-time units maintained to act in support of the regular army.
Whilst working as full time, active duty personnel, the women's services of WWII were titled as or seen as auxiliaries to the male services. These services were:( |3 }5 x% L8 x+ X+ g( Q& o, J% e

" ]5 M  S+ R! p2 O+ e% v- ~Women's Royal Naval Service; \/ G; W# z. C
Auxiliary Territorial Service
7 S: ]$ {" y' N. x# p/ ]4 EWomen's Auxiliary Air Force
. X: L$ P2 W+ v8 q) jAir Transport Auxiliary+ m% _: U0 [6 `, }' J6 u% G( m- v5 m) `
Women's Home Defence& j8 O& _( ~8 Y9 n
Women's Auxiliary Service (Burma)
1 c; @2 O% D3 b) U2 q6 m. G; FThe Royal Auxiliary Air Force was originally an auxiliary of the Royal Air Force, when it was first conceived and formed in 1924. Today the RAuxAF acts as a military reserve; this is reflected in its more common name 'RAF Reserve'.

; f1 r/ p' \- K$ F, I原本英国人喜欢用Auxiliary 这个词,现在还有Royal Auxiliary Air Force。
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OED说,这个词用在军事上有两个用处:( X: M7 b6 A1 {! v' @
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b. in warfare. See B. 2. Also in the names of various special ancillary services as: Auxiliary Air Force (formed 1917), Auxiliary Fire Service (formed 1937, absorbed in National Fire Service 1941), Auxiliary Territorial Service (formed 1938, replaced by the Women's Royal Army Corps in 1949) (see also S., separate entry).
2. Mil. (usually in pl.) Foreign or allied troops in the service of a nation at war.
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第二个用处,各大英汉词典都异口同声,说是「外国援军,盟国援军;雇佣军」,还行吧,虽然汉语里的「援军」向来是指「增援的部队」;剩下的情况怎么翻译,就颇费脑筋了
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( H( `0 b4 W5 O* I1 m按说,Auxiliary既然是「后备部队」「预备役部队」「民兵」等等的前身,比照着翻译就行。英汉大词典就是这么办的:
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an auxiliary corps of 500,000 militarily trained youths 由50万经过军事训练的青年组成的后备部队
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不过我们看看新牛津自己的例句:
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The military auxiliary corps of Filipinos loyal to the United States grew to 15,000....% }: h+ x  j- ~) X
A portion of military specialists have even conceived an opinion that the Ground Forces have outlived their usefulness and will only play the role of auxiliary troops in future wars.3 Y+ P2 V  K% z% b6 A" U5 b
On the whole, twelve member states of the North Atlantic Alliance have allowed their women to serve in auxiliary troops.
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第一句,忠于美国的菲律宾后备部队?外国援军?……好像不大对呀。好在第一句话我们可以google出来,在一篇讲美菲战争的文章里:
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General Otis had resisted creating large formations of Filipino troops. Faced with the imminent departure of US volunteer units whose term of service would expire in December 1900, General MacArthur authorized the recruitment and training of indigenous Filipino formations. Filipino scouts, police, and auxiliaries often were recruited from social and ethnic groups hostile to the wealthier Tagalog supporters of Aguinaldo. With time it became clear that local police were “some of the most effective counterinsurgency forces the Army raised.” The military auxiliary corps of Filipinos loyal to the United States grew to 15,000.33
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美国的军事力量要走了,得扶持本地势力才行,所以这个military auxiliary corps of Filipinos loyal to the United States应该是「忠于美国的当地民兵」,是美国人自己训练出来的,脑子灵光的应该能想到一个词「皇协军」
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第二句,军事专家觉得现如今陆军已经没什么大用了,在未来的战争里只能(给别的兵种)打打下手了……这个auxiliary,明显是要陆军跟空军、海军比,并不是真的「后备军」「民兵」
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第三句,北约有12个成员国已经允许女性在民兵里服役。这个问题不大
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5 k3 S& e3 ]. i& l0 A$ r4 X" p这么麻烦,跟近年来深入人心的auxiliary police =「辅警」相比,汉语里面愣是没有一个类似于「辅军」「协军」这样的词来对照,所以有的英汉词典干脆甩开膀子,给读者一个「辅助部队」了事。至于怎么个「辅助」法,读者一脸茫然。
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    [LV.6]常住居民II

    发表于 2019-8-13 23:56:24 | 显示全部楼层
    辅助部队不如译成战略支援部队
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    [LV.7]常住居民III

    发表于 2019-8-14 00:57:33 | 显示全部楼层
    本帖最后由 cocowind 于 2019-8-14 00:59 编辑
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    9 D4 `5 \3 M/ S是预备役部队。翻译也是要看译者的认真态度和知识面的。
  • TA的每日心情
    擦汗
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    [LV.9]以坛为家II

    发表于 2019-8-14 15:39:16 | 显示全部楼层
    楼主知识渊博,认真学习了一下,受益匪浅。期待整理成册。
  • TA的每日心情
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    [LV.9]以坛为家II

    发表于 2019-8-14 15:39:36 | 显示全部楼层
    楼主知识渊博,认真学习了一下,受益匪浅。期待整理成册。
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