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[词典考据] irony ≈ 倒错、颠倒错乱

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本帖最后由 klwo2 于 2020-11-22 14:26 编辑
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8 P( `; L5 Q5 m* r5 Y+ Q9 L0 Birony的意思是反话,把话反着说,正的说成反的,好的说成坏的,不是为了骗人,而是为了修辞。
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% h+ @- ^0 Q% v  n# R说反话,跟「讽刺别人」,不是一回事。讽刺别人的时候,可以通过说反话的手段来实现,也可以不用。+ s, |0 [3 y: \# z+ a
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汉语大词典「讽刺」:「以婉言隐语相讥刺」。通过其他委婉的手段批评人,也叫讽刺,不是非要说反话不可。
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" N) ^3 q1 T8 Q/ N9 P/ [英语里面,satire 才是「讽刺」,irony不是「讽刺」,irony只是「说反话」而已。这个问题,英英词典都说得很清楚:
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' z) }, j3 R6 b* C* H2 T$ XWorld Book Dictionary! c, K- [; |9 T/ s4 A1 R
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Irony, sarcasm, satire are humorous forms of expression. Irony consists in deliberately saying the opposite of what one means, relying on tone of voice or on context to indicate one’s real intent:+ r2 Q" K, z* H
that noble and loyal patriot, Benedict Arnold.6 F* B$ Z# i5 T* ^0 r
In sarcasm the aim is to hurt someone’s feelings and so, whether stated ironically or not, it is always cruel and biting:4 x" j) U7 q% |3 |! N2 |
When a boy refers to another boy as “mamma’s little darling,” he is using sarcasm.
" r1 m& Z- B% `  s( v+ E7 V3 zIn satire the aim is to expose and attack vice or folly, using irony, sarcasm, or other forms of humor to do so:. |1 E+ P5 ~6 I1 G" m4 I$ M
In “Gulliver’s Travels” Jonathan Swift makes notable use of satire.
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可惜英汉词典依然执迷不悟,天天给莘莘学子灌输irony=「讽刺」,灌输完了还打广告说自己「特别能解决中国学生的困惑」!!!!* g( _- U0 i  W

8 P, f' `5 y" Z' v建宏e世代% ?! o% {# g6 D% ?/ B) N
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释义里说是「讽刺」。跑到字辨里却变成了「反语」,莘莘学子看了怎能不崩溃跳楼  Q4 k3 Y) v7 v* c, u
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受此影响,苏格拉底的irony也有一堆英汉词典解释不清楚。
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3 L. G/ }. L/ @  A  }——————————————————————————————————————————————————
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其实irony 完全可以换用其他汉语词语来解释嘛!个个都说汉语博大精深,翻译英文的时候,「博大精深」四个字到哪里去了?( p2 o5 I0 |& o; s

  E& p- I1 r5 y我主张,irony 在有的时候可以翻成「倒错」「颠倒错乱」,因为:
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1. 英英词典解释「irony」,常常用opposite、contrary、reverse来解释,就是反了,倒了,和「倒错」意思一致。! g$ d" e' x: ?" y! j8 k5 t

5 ^6 @# Y2 U% ?新牛津:
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a state of affairs or an event that seems deliberately contrary to what one expects and is often amusing as a result
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0 h, v6 Y# j, p, j5 @5 D' V. ^韦氏高阶:& S  e& `  t& ?$ O+ ^5 n

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a situation that is strange or funny because things happen in a way that seems to be the opposite of what you expected

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* ]- ?. A' ?2 t3 zRandom House Webster's Unabridged:
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an outcome of events contrary to what was, or might have been, expected.
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a state of affairs or events that is the reverse of what was or was to be expected : a result opposite to and as if in mockery of the appropriate result <the ~ of fate>
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4 B4 H3 x2 \4 {. I7 c; e- Q辞源3「倒错」:
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( R- `+ l3 O* i2. 英英词典几乎从来不用satire 来解释irony,但有辞书用perverse来解释irony。perverse/perversion/perversity有对译词「倒错」
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# C0 q+ H; U( ]+ O2 m8 K牛津高阶双解(第四版)
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situation, event, etc that is desirable in itself but so unexpected or ill-timed that it appears to be deliberately perverse ……(其本身未始不可取,但因出人意料或来非其时而似故意乖违):
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5 _' L, d5 m7 O$ j  |0 \He inherited a fortune but died a month later; one of life's little ironies.他继承一笔遗产后一个月就死了,有点时乖命蹇吧。

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8 G( I; l; V" ~  x# k- z: a牛津高阶4双解并没有彻底戒掉「讽刺」,但是译者显然注意到这个词的麻烦之处了,所以引入「乖违」「时乖命蹇」来调和。比张口闭口只会说「讽刺」俩字的译者强。" m! b2 u: t9 Z. D# n6 c$ T

4 X9 D1 F/ L# g: p- r0 G# xConcise Oxford Dictionary 9th$ f2 y# w' v7 X
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an ill-timed or perverse arrival of an event or circumstance that is in itself desirable.

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6 v/ w* ?% c, j6 o- a& h. k牛津高阶4用perverse,是继承的COD。我说过了,早期的牛津高阶,跟COD很亲) }2 |3 h+ y0 u
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Universal Dictionary of the English Language [Henry Cecil Wyld],说perversity:0 |% v: w2 t4 R  e% b

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还有辞书用incongruity来解释irony。incongruity是「不一致」「不协调」,跟「错位」接近。
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5 `$ J+ R4 \# r1 B- RAmerican Heritage Dictionary:, h; f( Z8 G. k3 ?
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Incongruity between what might be expected and what actually occurs
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9 j+ F6 e9 B: M$ F5 ZMerriam-Webster:
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incongruity between the actual result of a sequence of events and the normal or expected result
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9 M. F) m* F' m6 l# e  r2 ?7 [% E  p# D3. 从英英词典的解释可以看出:irony的本质是「反着来」「倒着来」「说反话」,可是附加的意思可以很多,「strange/funny/amusing/sad」这些层面都可以随着上下文出现。
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! r( q+ }' [3 B0 ?: M2013年OED修订这个词的时候,说这词的内涵丰富着哪,干脆指示读者去翻阅书籍、论文!
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For a fuller discussion see E. N. Hutchens ‘The Identification of Irony’ in ELH (1960) 27 352-63 and N. Knox The Word 'Irony' & its Context, 1500–1755 (1961).
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与此相比,英汉词典的译者呆若木鸡,不知变通,看见irony只会说「讽刺」,不是很荒唐吗?!更不要说satire 才是「讽刺」,irony根本不是。
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$ W/ @" u/ f, f' b1 Yirony 表达「opposite、contrary」的层面,内涵简单,「倒错」有,「讽刺」没有
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表达「strange/funny/amusing/sad」的层面,内涵复杂,「倒错」「讽刺」都没有
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, Q# q$ ?% R1 d) s2 i所以在翻译的时候,要想把两面都照顾到,需要看准语境,适当加一些词,比如「啼笑皆非」「又好笑又可悲又好气」
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/ v) w+ x7 w- e「命运的讽刺」,可以改说「像是命运偏跟人作对,偏跟人反着来」。也可以说「命运的嘲弄」,「嘲弄」对应英英词典释义说的mockery(as if in mockery of the appropriate result)。! J! [/ @7 s/ ^: `7 w* u3 W% E1 H& E

' T' y5 i% u. `  d  H2 J下面改译一些句子:2 [+ ?: _: ~6 ?2 o( e1 k
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The tragic irony is that the drug was supposed to save lives. : e2 _. T1 o2 P2 f+ o
可悲的讽刺在于,这药本来是用来挽救生命的。
6 t9 B: i8 F% w) W' q, F1 R# X怎奈造化弄人,这药原本是救命用的。(「造化弄人」「命运的嘲弄」=mockery(as if in mockery of the appropriate result))
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- ~( W4 g2 S8 F+ b# JThe ultimate irony is that the revolution, rather than bringing freedom, actually ended it completely.' @1 M$ g7 q% w* j
革命非但没有带来自由,反而是完全结束了自由,这真是莫大的讽刺。
  R) r. p1 ?0 v1 R5 }% E9 Z革命非但没有带来自由,反倒是彻底结束了自由,这着实荒唐透顶。(「反倒」表达「opposite、contrary」,「荒唐」表达「strange/funny/amusing/sad」)4 e' e4 g) r6 k

) m# g% O  P' v) `& jIt is a nice irony that the rivalry among popes was solved by their ancient rival, the Holy Roman Emperor.: G3 c! ~% j8 h
教皇之间的争斗竟然由他们的老对手神圣罗马帝国皇帝解决了,这简直是绝妙的讽刺。8 o+ k5 O( P+ }, T8 L
几个教皇你争我斗,最后竟然由他们的宿敌,也就是神圣罗马皇帝摆平了,这么颠倒错乱的事情,实在是绝了。(「颠倒错乱」表达两个层面)$ }( o, @- I& M5 q, E' X$ D

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It was an irony that the firehouse burned.
4 I# G2 J5 j( v, E6 y4 ]3 ~消防站被火烧了,这可是个讽刺。 . y2 P% _9 p) G# N3 {6 ?) E1 U' l
消防站被火烧了,真叫人笑也不是,哭也不是。(表达「strange/funny/amusing/sad」,笑、哭本来就是反义词,隐含「opposite、contrary」)
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* G; q4 J- X0 t0 j" l6 BOpposition parties lost no time in stressing the irony of his return to power after being rejected by voters in November.
& Q! Q: A5 W5 `- U3 Z他11月份被选民否决后再次上台, 反对党立刻对这件事的讽刺性大做文章。 1 C/ V) {  y  `7 T( D
他11月份被选民整下来以后,再次上台执政,反对党立刻大做文章,使劲宣扬此事有多么荒诞、多么颠倒错乱。(怎么听着像是韩国瑜?)9 B! D' ^1 F7 ?: j( |0 s
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还有一些很简单的句子,应该是「说反话」,无奈某些英汉译者脑子里缺根弦,只知道「讽刺」:8 o( m7 X1 ?% Y8 `- C+ a" L$ i% J$ c
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Wagner calls his program ‘the worst talk show in America,’ without a hint of irony. ' o! F% ~; P  q+ K$ M
瓦格纳不带一丝讽刺,称他的节目是“美国最糟糕的访谈节目”。
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3 n" {- Y/ P$ Q9 i; W2 t'England is famous for its food,' she said with heavy irony.
1 J1 c$ x! C5 |. y9 [/ l“英格兰的食物很有名哪。” 她极其讽刺地说道。  A& X$ [! A# A: d+ r7 D! j( T
“英格兰是出了名的美食多啊/英格兰菜是出了名的好吃啊。” 她故意说反话。(牛津高阶4还是「说反话」,牛津高阶8就变成了「讽刺」,可谓每下愈况……)8 b6 _% d7 v  }5 Z7 j' l! K7 G
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