掌上百科 - PDAWIKI

 找回密码
 免费注册

QQ登录

只需一步,快速开始

查看: 189|回复: 5

[语言讨论] 德语学习交流及怎么背名词(性和数) #德语学习

[复制链接]
  • TA的每日心情
    开心
    2017-12-8 23:02
  • 签到天数: 2 天

    [LV.1]初来乍到

    发表于 2018-5-14 00:22:12 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
    本帖最后由 leoleo2100 于 2018-5-14 00:30 编辑
    2 ^/ o- q. D4 Y8 R2 p  Z: Q, U2 W5 U
    先说一下起因
    # X# E8 G% H6 }6 a! ^: A已在歌德语言中心xian学了一阵,周末两天上午去,每次5课时,迄今有大约80课时,一本书12课已经到第7课,刚好算二分之一。内中各种感受不表。作为成人学习德语从零开始,当前主要是听力很难,和背名词很难.迄今学的语法比较简单,还没体会到语法的难。好早前刚开始学时就很想在论坛请大家分享交流一下自己的学德语的经验和好方法。之前在论坛翻过,帖子不多。那就开个贴,希望聊聊德语学习方面,当前主要困难时怎么提高听力和背名词。
    , Z4 ]8 U1 N5 D) h! _" j可能不同阶段有不同的难点和关注点,刚开始一两周,我很纠结发音,总想很标准的发音,而歌德的叫法完全不理会这点,搞得自己也很纠结了一阵,过去了。现在的困难主要是听力提高和背名词。背名词对我来说难在记不住名词的grammatical gender和plural form。依靠死記硬背和看一些規律,有幫助但還是远不夠啊。拿出了背英語單詞的一些经验和方法,主要就是聯想和不擇手段,也翻过好几本语法书,比較注意看里面關於名词的词性和复数变格的总结。几乎每个中文语法书都有或多或少提到这2个,但内容很少,可能因为对语法书来说这2个话题远远是小芝麻,有些的说法也有矛盾点。自己也注意总结一些规律,但有时又想是不是搞得不对,适得其反了呢?很想多听听过来人的经验。翻过一些论坛,也到fb上翻一些小组,看一些学习网站,看看别人的提法,也有些帮助,但比较零散和低效,还是直接的针对性的交流最好的。昨天看到fb上一个小组讨论,今晚去看了一下,到他们网站也看了一会,觉得有点殊途同归,跟那个哥们聊了一通。今晚就把久有的在论坛开贴聊聊学德语话题的想法今晚就实现了吧。/ z( J, W; }. \/ b6 H, k. h5 y8 |
    抛砖引玉一番,希望各位前辈们作为过来人多分享一些经验和方法。谢谢!0 T5 {" c+ h  o& Y; a. ?
    ------
    4 j9 y1 E5 B* z8 {' N& |4 r+ e这个帖子希望,
    # ], D7 I( H2 {% |1,请前辈们分享交流学德语的方法和经验
    # B) ?9 ~9 b$ p, A% E# f2,也是做个自己的点滴记录吧

      y; i4 h# K" z. P2 Q谢谢!

    评分

    1

    查看全部评分

  • TA的每日心情
    开心
    2017-12-8 23:02
  • 签到天数: 2 天

    [LV.1]初来乍到

     楼主| 发表于 2018-5-14 00:33:23 | 显示全部楼层
    本帖最后由 leoleo2100 于 2018-5-14 00:37 编辑 2 }; i2 W) y5 R
    * A* T  b# L* B& R% V
    跟fb那个哥们的交流也贴这里了,提到背名词性和数的做法,里面的英文错误也欢迎纠正。多听多说多写多犯错误,才能学得快吧。
    # {! O5 A2 ^/ k hi, just watched the video on how to learn article in your website. And happy to find I used to use the similar way to remember the grammatical gender of nouns. I call it 锚链法anchor-chain or 单词树word-tree .
    ( p* _; N: h+ I- Tmore detail in an example.
    6 e; X( o, E9 W( p& U( d+ xWhen I learned Einheit 5, I need remember some new nouns' gender.
    $ {6 U% D4 G8 m, n7 kStep 1,
    & \. i# z) }  q0 o! ?+ H9 Qfilt them by intuition first, because some nouns can be guessed for their grammatical gender. For example, der Sessel is for master in a family only, and master in a family is man and husband (sorry to feminist) , so this word is "male" or "for male. And sofa is for many person to seat , so it is a "das " noun in Deutsch. And usually a collective noun is neutral. + m" u' X: @% d3 d. x& w
    Step 2, & h. ~" |3 e: k2 K1 K
    group the nouns by gender and create them into several smaller groups to reduce the difficulty to remember. For example, when I got new nouns to remember their gender. I made some small groups. This is a group with following nouns: Arbeit, Uni, Bank, Schule. I imagine a scenary like this , in the university (Uni), there is a bank(Bank) trainning school(schule) and a lady work(arbeiten,Arbeit) there. I repeated this situation in my mind several times and connect these words together tightly. And I had already known that Schule is a fermininal noun because of its ending letter of e. I call it as the anchor and then chain new words to it. The key is to find a suitbal anchor word, that must be an easy-to-master word or already-remembered word and it can be chained logically with other new nouns. Or I locate a word as root in a small group and then grow other new words from it, Just like a tree grows up from its root.
    4 h$ C" W  g5 B, H& dThat method has two simple steps, filt first, and make anchor and chain. . Z0 ^" n) t3 T+ k" ?& c. i
    So I need exact and more regulations as much as possible to reduce the amout of irregularly nouns. And I have sum up some regulations about the gender and some are not for sure. 9 H$ Z% ?( Q' ^' ?0 b
    - [9 o2 a) `9 [/ O  L1 l. M
    Another challenge to me is to remember the plural form of nouns. I try to use the similar method. for example, der Herd and das Bild, for me, it's easy to remember their genders by following imaginating: a male ignite a cigar by use of the Herd and the Bild is a group photo of a male and a female(I look Bild as collective noun, so it is neuter). The problem is,very very hard to remember the plural form, dir Herde, die Belder. The confusion is, these two nouns have same ending letter of B, but quite different inflection for plural form. I tried many time to remember the plural forms of these two words but failed for many times. I remember that by rote but I can keep the memory for only one or two days. Finally I thought I should enlarge the ending character letters to help remember the plural form. I know English word Filter, so "Bild" has the similar ending with Filter, (according to the pronouncation of Bild), why not chain the Bilder to filter? and for Herd, just imaginating a male hurted by the oven fire when he tried to light a cigar on the Herd. So, so! Figured out. Further, I want to know, for other German nouns with ending of "ld", their plural form is always "..lder" ? I want to find more example, that supports or opposes this "mini regulation"? whatever, help to keep optimising these mini “regulations”.
    & Q; O" S' I" Z9 w2 @What I want is to learn more logically and more quickly. Thank you again and looking forward to more help.
  • TA的每日心情
    开心
    2017-12-8 23:02
  • 签到天数: 2 天

    [LV.1]初来乍到

     楼主| 发表于 2018-5-14 13:40:16 | 显示全部楼层
    关于gender,有一个比较全的规则集,如图

    本帖子中包含更多资源

    您需要 登录 才可以下载或查看,没有帐号?免费注册

    x

    评分

    1

    查看全部评分

  • TA的每日心情
    开心
    2017-12-8 23:02
  • 签到天数: 2 天

    [LV.1]初来乍到

     楼主| 发表于 2018-5-17 23:14:57 | 显示全部楼层
    转个有趣的东西,
    ' k: P) S. j7 d, V+ U" [& r# L' E" H8 w
    % X5 {, o7 j9 _! H; F/ z. g: r4 r6 i
    https://www.lsa.umich.edu/german/hmr/Grammatik/Gender/Gender.html* q7 [) W. g8 e6 M2 b  [  @
    Some Hints on How to Guess Gender
    2 a8 ~/ ?( E" d" P9 P7 D* Q9 i/ J5 ?/ s% {6 c# w
    ------------------------------------6 M/ v) O6 l0 a1 P
    Fun Facts (Which gender is most common? Does gender affect the way we think?)
    ' |) f  k3 l6 k6 X3 b" M) K, pClick here for an article by Duden (in German) that includes the following fun facts:2 |& j7 N2 i' `6 u1 G3 L; l

    - @* a8 U' x% W2 Y) R5 {, J- p: }. H# v98.7% of German nouns have a single gender. Just under 1.3% can be used with two genders, and .02% can be used with all three genders. Less than 0.1% of nouns are (almost) always used without an article (e.g. AIDS, Allerheiligen (a holiday))., k& R. w& }) q
    Of the nouns with a unique gender, 46% are feminine, 34% masculine, and 20% neuter. So, if in doubt about the gender of a noun, guess "die" :)
  • TA的每日心情
    慵懒
    2018-7-12 21:52
  • 签到天数: 2 天

    [LV.1]初来乍到

    发表于 2018-7-12 22:06:16 | 显示全部楼层
    说一些题外话,本人非德语专业,入学前拿到dsh3,对于名和数我已经基本放弃,努力保证词性不错已是力竭,单复数我就基本放弃了,在学德语的后期,重要是还是语法,单词量,动名词搭配变换。之后写作业的时候,遇到词性和单复数,不确定查词典就好了,但是日常交流中,听力和口语十分重要,毕竟讲的快写,没人听到词尾是不是够准确,但是语法错误和单词说不出,这种诘屈聱牙的苦楚伴随着德国人苦恼的眼神,你就想赶紧缩回家背单词
  • TA的每日心情

    2018-8-25 04:38
  • 签到天数: 14 天

    [LV.3]偶尔看看II

    发表于 2018-8-17 00:50:49 | 显示全部楼层
    本人德语专业,研究生已毕业。兼职上过一些入门德语的课程,很多学生就会来问我:老师,德语单复数和阴阳中性有规律吗?我一般回答,没有规律。其实是有规律,但是德语在这方面的规律真的很难掌控,因为每一项规律之外都有n多例外,而且细分起来规律也挺复杂。比方说,以o,u,a,au为元音的很多单词,复数一般变元音加-er, -e 结尾的单词多为阴性,复数多为-n。好,每一条规律都是“多”怎样怎样,就拿第一条,Haus-Häuser, 但是 Faust-Fäuste;第二条规律,也好好多好多-e结尾的名词是阳性名词啊,比方说Name。我个人觉得,没必要去总结规律,因为太累了,你不知道要给一条规律加上多少限定才能成立。但是,不得不说,当你单词记很多的时候,遇到新词,有时候就会有很准确的预感,这个词是什么词性,复数是什么。这个时候,你才去看语法书里关于性数分布规律的描述,就会感觉如虎添翼。所以,我建议,初学者就蒙头记单词吧,背单词的时候带上性数。多看看,念念课文,到了一定水平,就多读读那种分级的读物,机械记单词太枯燥了。
    您需要登录后才可以回帖 登录 | 免费注册

    本版积分规则

    顶部qrcode底部
    关注公众号送论坛充值码
    关注微信公众平台
    关注微信公众号 pdawiki,获取邀请码,看文抢积分,抽奖得浮云! Follow our Wechat official account "pdawiki", get invitation codes, and play the lottery to earn points (积分)!

    小黑屋|手机版|Archiver|PDAWIKI |网站地图

    GMT+8, 2019-2-22 19:57 , Processed in 0.483192 second(s), 16 queries , MemCache On.

    Powered by Discuz! X3.4

    © 2001-2017 Comsenz Inc.

    快速回复 返回顶部 返回列表